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Central Banks

Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs)


A Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) is the digital form of a country's fiat currency that is also a claim on the central bank. Instead of printing money, the central bank issues electronic coins or account backed by the full faith and credit of the government. -Atlantic Council

CBDC Research Papers

| 21 st Century Cash: Central Banking, Technological Innovation & Digital Currencies - Bank of Italy 2018
| An Innovation In Payments - R3 2020
| CBDC: Central Banking for All - Federal Reserve Bank Philadelphia 2020
| CBDC: Foundational Principles and Core Features - From Multiple Central Banks 2020
| CBDCs Highlight Bitcoins Value Proposition - Grayscale 2020
| Central Banking in the Digital Age - Brookings Institute 2018
| Central Banks and the Future of Digital Money - Consensys 2020
| Central Bank Digital Currency and the Future of Monetary Policy - Bordo and Levin 2017
| Central Bank Digital Currencies: Money Reinvented - Deutsche Bank 2020
| Central Bank Digital Currencies and Distributed Ledger Technology - Fernández de Lis and Sebastián 2019
| Central Banks and Distributed Ledger Technology - World Economic Forum 2019
| Design choices for Central Bank Digital Currency - Brookings Institute 2020
| Designing Central Bank Digital Currencies - International Monetary Fund 2019
| Digital Currencies and Stablecoins: Risks and Opportunities - Group of Thirty 2020
| Digital Currency Revolution - Centre for the Study of Financial Innovation 2020
| Digitalization of Money - Brunnermeier, James, Landau 2019
| Digitalization of Payments and Currency: Some Issues for Consideration - Lael Brainard 2020
| Do CBDCs Really Require a Permissioned Blockchain? (external link) - Cardano Foundation 2021
| e-Krona pilot: Phase1 - Sveriges Riksbank 2022
| Exploring a U.S. Central Bank Digital Currency - Digital Dollar Project 2020
| Features, Options, Pros, and Cons - BBVA 2019
| Framework for Central Bank Digital Currency - Han, Yuan, Wang 2019
| From Bitcoin to Central Bank Digital Currencies - Cunha, Melo, Sebastião 2021
| Hyperledger CBDC Projects Around the World - Hyperledger Foundation 2022
| Impacts of Digital Currency on China's Monetary System - Qianru Xiang 2015
| List of All Current Central Bank Digital Currency and Stablecoin Initiatives - (external link) - Security Token Advisors 2020
| Monetary Policy with a Central Bank Digital Currency - Bank of England 2018
| Money and Central Bank Digital Currency - Asian Development Bank 2019
| Public or Private: The Future of Money - European Parliament 2019
| Objectives, Preconditions, and Design Choices - De Nederlandsche Bank 2020
| On the Future of Money and Payments - Deutsche Bundesbank 2020
| Opportunities, Challenges and Design - Bank of England 2020
| Perspective of a Couple of Canadian Central Bankers - Bank of Canada 2019
| Policy Trilemma of Central Bank Digital Currency - Ole Bjerg 2017
| Potential Reasons for Issuing a CBDC - Banque de France Taskforce 2020
| Policymaker Toolkit - World Economic Forum 2020
| Should Central Banks Issue Digital Currency - Keister and Sanches 2018
| Should the Bank of Japan Issue a Digital Currency - Bank of Japan 2019
| Regulatory Challenges and Risks for Central Bank Digital Currency - Int'l Telecommunication Union 2019
| Rise of Central Bank Digital Currencies - PricewaterhouseCoopers 2019
| Understanding CBDC: An Accounting Perspective - Wall Street Blockchain Alliance 2020
| Understanding Central Bank Digital Currencies - Institute and Faculty of Actuaries 2019
| Uruguayan e-Peso on the Context of Financial Inclusion - Gerardo Licandro 2018

CBDC Reports by Bank of International Settlements (BIS)

| A Survey on Central Bank Digital Currency - Part 1 - 2019
| A Survey on Central Bank Digital Currency - Part 2 - 2020
| Banking in the Shadow of Bitcoin - 2022
| Central Bank Cryptocurrencies - 2017
| Central Banks and Payments in the Digital Era - Annual Report (Chapter 3) - 2020
| Committee of Payments and Market Infrastructures - 2018
| Designing a Prudential Treatment for Crypto Assets - 2019
| Digital Currencies and the Future of the Monetary System - 2021
| Distributed Ledger Technology in Payment Clearing and Settlement - 2017
| Money in a Digital Age: Ten Thoughts - 2018
| Money in the Digital Age: What Role for Central Banks - 2018
| Rise of the Central Bank Digital Currencies: Drivers, Approaches and Technology - 2020
| Regulating Cryptocurrencies: Assessing Market Reactions - 2018
| The Technology of Retail Central Bank Digital Currency - 2020

Table of Contents

| Bitcoin Lightning Network - (28 reports)
| Bitcoin Mining - (46 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by CPAs and Management Consultants - (30 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by Governments, Agencies, NGOs - (45 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by Financial Institutions - (83 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by Institutes & Foundations - (23 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by Lawyers & Law Firms - (15 reports)
| Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs) - (55 reports)
| Cryptocurrency Crime, Terrorism & National Security - (53 reports)
| Decentralized Finance (DeFi) - (22 reports)
| Encryption & Quantum Resistant Bitcoin - (38 reports)
| Healthcare & Blockchain Technology - (23 reports)
| Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) - (18 reports)
| Privacy, Anonymization and Data Protection - (12 reports)
| Proof of Stake (PoS) Consensus Protocol - (33 reports)
| Proof of Work (PoW) Consensus Protocol - (15 reports)
| Research & Academic Papers on Bitcoin and Crypto - (52 reports)
| Smart Contracts - (38 reports)
| Stablecoins - (15 reports)
| Top 10 Public Companies Holding Bitcoin - (10 reports)
| Understanding Austrian Economics and Bitcoin - (16 reports)

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