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Proof of Stake

Proof of Stake (PoS)

In proof of stake, the stakeholder who will form the next block (within the blockchain) is randomly selected, proportionally to the size of the stake that they have, according to the blockchain ledger. “Proof” means having evidence that blocks of transactions are legitimate. “Stake” means the relative value held by addresses on the node. “Relative value” is all the value held by wallets on a particular node divided by total value in the system. - IOHK/Cardano Foundation

PoS Research Papers

| Account Management in Proof of Stake Ledgers - Karakostas, Kiayias, Larangeira 2020
| Consistency of Proof of Stake Blockchains with Concurrent Honest Slot Leaders - Kiayias, Quader, Russell 2020
| Cryptocurrencies without Depletion of Physical Scarce Resources - Bentov, Gabizon, Mizrahi 2016
| Extending Bitcoin’s Proof of Work via Proof of Stake - Bentov, Lee, Mizrahi, Rosenfeld 2016
| Formal Specification for a Cardano Wallet - Coutts and de Vries 2018
| Hybrid POW and POS Cryptocurrency via MemCoin - Adam Mackenzie 2012
| Hybrid PoW and PoS Design - Christina Jepson 2015
| Linear Consistency for Proof of Stake Blockchains -Blum, Kiayias, Moore, Quader, Russell 2019
| Ouroboros: A Provably Secure Proof of Stake Blockchain Protocol - Kiayias, Russell, David, Oliynykov 2019
| Ouroboros Chronos: Permissionless Clock Synchronization via Proof of Stake - Badertscher, Gazi, Kiayias, Russell, Zikas 2019
| Ouroboros Crypsinous: Privacy Preserving Proof of Stake - Kerber, Kohlweiss, Kiayias, Zikas 2019
| Ouroboros Genesis: Composable Proof of Stake Blockchains with Dynamic Availability - Badertscher, Gazi, Kiayias, Russell, Zikas 2019
| Ouroboros Praos: An Adaptively-Secure, Semi-Synchronous Proof of Stake Blockchain - David, Gazi, Kiayias, Russell 2017
| Pixel: Multi-signatures for Consensus - Drijvers, Gorbunov, Neven, Wee 2020
| Proof of Stake Algorithm for Distributed Consensus - Spencer Hosack 2018
| Proof of Stake: Attacks and Possible Vulnerabilities - BitFury Group 2015
| Proof of Stake Made Simple with Casper - Moindrot and Bournhonesque 2017
| Proof of Stake Blockchain Protocols with Near-Optimal Throughput - Fitzi, Gazi, Kiayias, Russell 2019
| Proof of Stake Sidechains - Gazi, Kiayias, Zindros 2018
| Proof of Stake Time via VeriCoin - Pike, Nosker, Boehm, et al. 2014
| Proof of Work and Proof of Stake consensus protocols - Seang and Torre 2018
| Proof of Work and Proof of Stake via TwinsCoin - Chepurnoy, Duongy, Fan, Zhou 2017
| Reward Sharing Schemes for Stake Pools - Brünjes, Kiayias, Koutsoupias, Stouka 2020
| Robust Proof of Stake: A New Consensus Protocol for Sustainable Blockchains - Li, Wei, He 2020
| Scaling Byzantine Agreements for Cryptocurrencies - Gilad, Hemo, Micali, Vlachos, Zeldovich 2017
| Selfish Behavior in the Tezos Proof of Stake Protocol - Neuder, Rao, Moroz, Parkes 2020
| Stake Shift in Major Cryptocurrencies - Stutz, Gazi, Haslhofer, Illum 2020
| Stake Bleeding Attacks on Proof of Stake Blockchains - Gazi, Kiayias, Russel 2018
| Vault: Fast Bootstrapping for the Algorand Cryptocurrency - Leung, Suhl, Gilad, Zeldovich 2019

Table of Contents

| Bitcoin Lightning Network - (28 reports)
| Bitcoin Mining - (46 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by CPAs and Management Consultants - (30 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by Governments, Agencies, NGOs - (45 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by Financial Institutions - (83 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by Institutes & Foundations - (23 reports)
| Blockchain Reports by Lawyers & Law Firms - (15 reports)
| Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs) - (55 reports)
| Cryptocurrency Crime, Terrorism & National Security - (53 reports)
| Decentralized Finance (DeFi) - (22 reports)
| Encryption & Quantum Resistant Bitcoin - (38 reports)
| Healthcare & Blockchain Technology - (23 reports)
| Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) - (18 reports)
| Privacy, Anonymization and Data Protection - (12 reports)
| Proof of Stake (PoS) Consensus Protocol - (33 reports)
| Proof of Work (PoW) Consensus Protocol - (15 reports)
| Research & Academic Papers on Bitcoin and Crypto - (52 reports)
| Smart Contracts - (38 reports)
| Stablecoins - (15 reports)
| Top 10 Public Companies Holding Bitcoin - (10 reports)
| Understanding Austrian Economics and Bitcoin - (16 reports)

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